Monthly Archives: May 2015

Winter Herb Walk With Indie & Otis – 2015

One of life’s greatest pleasures is taking our dogs, Indie and Otis, on long walks around the farm. On this particular day we encountered seven plants in their winter dormant period. The first plant we encountered was a new discovery for me. It was a vine wrapping its way around these bushes and it had the most amazing seed heads, they looked like cotton puffs. I was delighted to see such beauty in the middle of winter. I took some photos to send to my friend Jo, who can identify any plant that grows in the state of Colorado. I am grateful she is my friend. She soon informed me that I had found Clematis (Clematis virginiana) a.k.a Virgin’s Bower. I will look forward to late spring/summer to see what the flowers look like and take a photo.


The seven plants we encountered:

Plant #1: Clematis (Clematis spp) a member of the Ranunculaceae family. Another name for this plant is Virgin’s Bower. The medicinal use of this plant is still being studied. What a beautiful plant to discover during the winter. I look forward to admiring it this spring and summer.


Plant #2: Hops (Humulus lupulus) a member of the Cannabacea family. A great herb for insomnia, tension, digestion and beer.


Plant# 3: Burdock (Arctium species) a member of the Compositae family. The root of this plant is very nutritious. It can be thinly sliced and added to salads, lightly cooked, or added to soups. The root gently stimulates the liver to function more efficiently resulting in helping the organ with its job of filtering waste materials from the blood. I love this plant and I could write paragraphs on all its benefits.


Plant#4: Rose (Rosa spp) a member of the Rosaceae family. It is as beautiful in the winter as it is in the summer. The petals, leaves, bark, roots and (vitamin-C rich) hips are all used. Rose has astringent, nutritive, diuretic and vulnerary actions.


Plant#5: Licorice (Glycyrrhiza lepidota) member of the Leguminaceae family. It is the root of the plant that is used. The root is dug in the fall. Its main taproots can sink three to four feet into the ground making it a challenge to dig. It is an excellent remedy for inflammatory upper respiratory conditions. There is much to be said about licorice root. A fun find this winter and a bit of a challenge to photograph.


Plant #6: Mullein (Verbascum thapsus) a member of the Scrophulariaceae family. This plant is a biennial. In its first year of growth it forms a basal rosette of large, broadly lance-shaped, fuzzy leaves. Its second and final year of growth it grows a long central stalk that produces numerous yellow flowers. The leaves are used as an expectorant and respiratory antispasmodic. The flowers are antimicrobial. The fresh flowers buds are infused in oil and used to treat bacterial infections of the ear. I wonder which stage of growth this plant is in? We shall see this summer. My guess it is in its second year.


Plant #7: Hawthorne (Crataegus species) a member of the Rosaceae family. A plant that offers a beautiful tonic for the heart and circulatory system. The tonic comes from the fresh flowering twigs and ripe berries. I have much affection for this plant for its ability to help humans and offer food and habitat to wildlife. There is much to say about this giving shrub/small tree.


This is the last plant we encountered on our winter herb walk. Hope you enjoyed this walk with us. See you at the next walk.

Plants and Ceremony for Animals

Saying good-bye to an animal friend is one of the saddest moments I have experienced. The hardest part is helping them transition. “Sometimes they need us to help them move on,” a friend said to me after she had to make the decision to take her husband off life support. This past July, we had to suddenly say good-bye to our beloved dog, Oscar. I was so grateful I had some plant medicine to help him through his transition.


Plants and ceremony have been instrumental in my life in many ways. One of which is helping me say good-bye to an animal friend. I also find them helpful throughout my mourning process. Below is the story of how I discovered using plants to create a ceremony for animals along with suggestions on using plants to create your own ceremony.

The Story:

One fall, my 28-year-old Morgan horse, Pete, became very sick. He was in a great deal of pain, very weak and not able to stand. We tried for 24 hours to help him get through this strange illness. I spent the night in Pete’s stall talking and singing to him. He quietly laid there listening and sighing every now and then. As the sun started to rise and light illuminated his stall, I whispered to him, “Hey Pete, the sun is rising. It’s going to be a beautiful day. How about you getting up too?” Pete just stared at me with a beautiful calmness, and in my heart I knew he was ready to go. My husband John also noticed how peaceful Pete was and said, “That is the quietest I have seen him in the past 24 hours.”


The vet arrived and began explaining the invasive technique she was going to perform to get Pete up on all fours and into a harness. Holding back the tears, I said, “But look how quiet and peaceful he is.” She then gently said to me, “You only have one other option.” John and I knew intuitively that Pete’s tranquility signaled that he was ready to go, even though we were not ready to say goodbye. Thinking back to my recent trip to Belize, where I had learned about spiritual and healing ceremonies with plants, I realized we needed our own ceremony or ritual to aid Pete and ourselves in his passing.

After telling my vet that we needed some time to say good-bye, I went to my garden and found some plants that were still growing. One of them happened to be rosemary, a symbol of regeneration, which the Greeks and Romans believed gave comfort to the living and peace to the dead. I then selected some essential oils, and my copal resin for smudging. For our goodbye ceremony, I infused a bowl of water with rosemary, hay, and essential oils of rose, myrrh and frankincense for a spiritual bath. I braided rosemary into his mane and tail and then burned the copal resin in his stall while we were saying our goodbyes. It was a beautiful and peaceful moment that I believe greatly eased Pete. This experience convinced me that ceremony and ritual have the potential to help all animals. After all, our animals are a blessing in our lives and it only makes sense to honor them in this way.


Although my first ceremony was to aid in an animal’s passing, ceremonies and rituals can be performed for many other occasions as well. A ceremony can welcome a newly acquired animal into your life and help it let go of the life it left to come into yours. ISaying good-bye to an animal friend is one of the saddest moments I have experienced. The hardest part is helping them transition. “Sometimes they need us to help them move on,” a friend said to me after she had to make the decision to take her husband off life support. This past July, we had to suddenly say good-bye to our beloved dog, Oscar. I was so grateful I had some plant medicine to help him through his transition.

Plants and ceremony have been instrumental in my life in many ways. One of which is helping me say good-bye to an animal friend. I also find them helpful throughout my mourning process. Below is the story of how I discovered using plants to create a ceremony for animals along with suggestions on using plants to create your own ceremony.

When I am preparing a ceremony for one of my animals or for a friend’s, I plan for a daylong event or, at the very least, a half day. This is a time set aside for myself, the animal and the people who are invited to participate in this special moment.

First, I choose my setting. If the weather is agreeable, I find a spot outside and place my ceremony blanket in the middle to form a circle for us all to sit around. I gather plants, tying the bundles for the plant brushings with a special ribbon and placing them in a beautiful vase (I always make a plant bundle for each person attending the ceremony). Next, I place the plants chosen for the spiritual bath in a crystal bowl filled with water, and then set the bowl in the sun, along with a special cloth that I use for the bath. I gather my smudging materials and set them in the circle. I also place pictures and mementos of my animals that have already passed on alongside significant objects relating to the animal for which the ceremony is being conducted. These items can be things such as collars, favorite toys or their favorite treats. As participants arrive, I ask them to spend a few minutes walking the yard and collecting any plants they might like to contribute to the spiritual bath. When the bath is ready, I add two drops each of the following essential oils: frankincense, myrrh, rose and sweet marjoram; I call this my Peace Blend. Then I will place the completed bath in the center of the circle.

Once the center of the circle is complete, everyone is in attendance, and our special animal has been welcomed, we begin the ceremony. I go around the circle and smudge everyone by waving a feather over the smoke so it covers the person, and during this time I am saying an opening poem or singing a song. Each participant then introduces him or herself and says something about the animal for whom the ceremony is being held. I welcome the spirit of all the animals whose photos are in the center of the circle to the ceremony. Then we give the animal present a spiritual bath and a very light plant brushing, always mindful of how the animal is receiving the bath and the plant brushing, adjusting them according to their response. I quietly talk to the animal, expressing my love and gratitude for them and if someone has something to add, it will be during this time.


Once this part of the ceremony is finished, everyone sits in silence with love in their hearts. This is my time to connect with the animal in a quiet state. When the silence is broken, we all stand in a circle and perform a plant brushing on each participant. With them standing in the center of the circle, we gently brush them with our plant bundles and sing a song. When we have completed giving the last person their plant brushing, we smudge everyone and close the ceremony. The end of your ceremony is yours to decide. If you are having a goodbye ceremony with your animal, whose time it is to pass on, you may wish for your vet to be present and say your final goodbye at the end of the ceremony, or you can wait for everyone to leave and then say your goodbyes privately. It is your ceremony, and you can shape it in whatever way feels most appropriate to you and your animal.


Unfortunately, sometimes our animals choose to leave suddenly and there is no time to prepare for a ceremony. If this is the case, you can create a quick ritual with the plants around your home, or any essential oil you may have available. Frankincense is a good one to have on hand, and I always have my Peace Blend with me. With these simple plants and oils, you can create a blessing and say your special goodbye. With our horse Pete, we had little time to prepare and I simply did what I could at the moment. After his passing, I created a little altar in his stall on an upturned water bucket. I placed a crystal, carrots and rosemary on it and I continued to burn the copal resin in my smudge bowl every day for a week. To this day, there is still a purple ribbon tied to his stall door.

With another one of my animals, his passing was sudden and we were out of town. Our dog, Merlin, decided to pass on at our home in Colorado, while we were on vacation in Rhode Island. I found two small glass bowls in the cottage where we were staying. I gave one to my husband and kept one for myself. We walked around the yard of the cottage gathering plants. We found red clover, wild rose, yellow flowers, pine needles, and purple chicory flowers to place in these two spiritual bath bowls. I then made a little altar on a table out in the sun and tended to these little bowls of love the entire week we were there. On our last day of vacation, we poured the spiritual baths into a beautiful pitcher and walked to our favorite spot on the beach where we tearfully said our goodbyes to Merlin. We poured this spiritual bath water on our feet and onto the sand and watched the waves carry all the plants and water out to the ocean. It was one of the most beautiful and painful moments of my life, and a wonderful way to honor Merlin’s spirit. Even though we could not be physically present, I was grateful to know that our house-sitter at the time had the Peace Blend on hand and had given it to Merlin during the time of his passing.


If you are having a ceremony during the winter and you live in a place where the plants go dormant, you can always purchase some plants at the flower store, or you can use plants you have dried in seasons past. I collect my marigolds, basil, rue, sage, yarrow and other plants during the growing season and dry them for use as tea or for use in ceremonies. The trees want to take part in these ceremonies, so if it resonates, include them too. I always buy fresh roses for the center piece of the ceremonial circle and for the plant brushings. You can be very creative during the winter months.

All of these ceremony ideas can be performed before, during or after your animal companion has moved on. You can also perform a ceremony on the anniversary of their passing. I have performed ceremonies for animals that have been newly adopted, had to be given away, had passed on years before, who were lost and for animals in the wild. Ceremonies are personal so feel free to create your own unique ritual to honor your animal friend.

I also use plants and essential oils during my bereavement process. I will fill a crystal bowl with water and add plants to them. (I am creating a spiritual bath.) At the end of each week, during a four week cycle, I will empty this spiritual bath on a favorite space in the yard where my animal friend used to hang out; I then repeat this process for the next three weeks. I keep the spiritual bath in a special area of the house with a candle and pictures of my animal friend. Much peace to you and your animals.

Plants are a main component in all my ceremonies. They offer the healing, support, love and peace we need, especially when we ask them to take part in our lives. Plant medicine and plant spirits have been part of daily life for centuries. I feel that in today’s world, surrounded by technology and social media, it is especially important to reconnect with the plant world again. The plants are waiting for you.


Some plant suggestions to use in your ceremony and their meanings:

Basil (Ocimum basilicum): A plant that is known to comfort the heart, mind and spirit.

Copal (Bursera microphylla): This resin has been used ritually by Mesoamericans for centuries. It is burned year-round in Mexican churches and is especially popular in homes during the Day of the Dead celebrations. Copal resin is traditionally burned in protection, cleansing and purification ceremonies. Large amounts of copal were burned on top of the Aztec and Mayan pyramids.

Frankincense (Boswellia carteri) and Myrrh (Commiphora myrrha): Since antiquity these resins have been burned to create sacred smoke that rises as a bridge between the spirits of this world and the heavens. The oil of frankincense was used in ancient Egypt to anoint the head the dead or dying. The resins and oils are both used ceremonially to help dying animals or people move on to the next realm. Frankincense and myrrh help close the wounds of loss and rejection.

Lavender (Lavandula angustifolia): Lavender is considered the balancer of emotions. Rudolph Steiner suggests that lavender stabilizes the Physical, Etheric and Astral bodies.

Marigolds (Tagetes patula): Mesoamericans believe this is the only flower the dead can smell. Marigolds are believed to comfort the heart and the spirit.

Rose (Rosa damascena): This plant represents love and protection. In the eighth century B.C. epic poem, “The Iliad,” Homer tells us how Hector’s body was anointed with rose oil after his death at Achilles’ hand. Rose is helpful in times of sadness, grief, disappointment and great joy.

Rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis): The Greeks and Romans saw this plant as a symbol of regeneration; they held it to be a sacred plant. They believed this plant gave comfort to the living and peace to the dead.

Rue (Ruta graveolens): This plant posses the power of magic. It is also known as the herb of grace. It is used for blessing, releasing and banishing evil spirits or thoughts.

Sage (Salivia apiana): Sage is used to cleanse objects, places, people and animals. Its aroma has very calming properties.

Sweet Grass (Hierochloe odorata): Sweet grass is also burnt as a purifier, similar to sage. It is lighter than sage and often burnt after burning sage. It encourages positive vibrations to enter the area or room.

Sweet Marjoram (Origanum majorana): Sweet marjoram gives a feeling of comfort in cases of grief and loneliness, since it has a warming effect on the emotions. The Greeks used wild marjoram as a funeral herb and it was planted on graves to bring spiritual peace to the departed.

Thyme (Thymus vulgaris): Thyme is associated with strength and courage.

Yarrow (Achillea millefolium): Yarrow heals wounds on the physical, mental and spiritual level

Vetiver (Vetiveria zizanoides)

Vetiver (Vetiveria zizanoides)


This tall, tufted, scented grass has a straight stem, long narrow leaves and an abundant lacework of underground white rootlets. It is a perennial native to south India, Indonesia and Sri Lanka and is also cultivated in Reunion, the Philippines and West and South America. The dark-brown, olive or amber essential oil is steam-distilled from the roots and the rootlets. Although the oil is mainly produced in Java, Haiti and Reunion, some is distilled in Europe and the United States.

Since antiquity the rootlets have been used in the East for their fine fragrance. Vetiver essential oil imparts a sense of tranquility and peace. I find it to be deeply relaxing and a perfect oil to help ground me and my animals. This essential oil is also helpful with arthritis, muscular aches and pains, and stiffness. It also helps with acne and oily skin. Of this oil’s many benefits, my personal favorites are its grounding properties of tranquility and peace.

Vetiver is an amazing essential oil and that is why it is one of the main components of our Merlin’s Magic Calming Potion.


(This is general information regarding vetiver and vetiver essential oil. We encourage you to learn more about vetiver through research and see how it can benefit your life. Thanks!)

Zoopharmacognosy and Your Animals

Have you ever noticed your horse, dog or cat eating a certain plant in your garden or out in the fields? Well, if you have, you may be witnessing Zoopharmacognosy. This is a term coined by Dr. Eloy Rodriguez, a biochemist and professor at Cornell University. Zoopharmacognosy refers to the process by which animals self-medicate. In this process, animals select and use plants, soils and insects to treat and prevent disease. The word Zoopharmacognosy is derived from the roots “zoo” (animal), “pharma” (drug) and “gnosy” (knowing).


I have noticed this behavior with my own animals and wondered why they would eat certain plants. Our golden retriever Midas would always eat the echinacea in my garden. Echinacea (Echinacea angulstifolia & E. purpurea) contains a number of constituents that stimulate the immune system to deal with both bacterial and viral infections. Midaswas always dealing with a compromised immune system, and maybe this is why he loved to eat echinacea. Pete, my elderly and arthritic horse, would eat the yarrow (<i>Achillea millefolium</i>) in my garden. One of the constituents of yarrow is chamazulene, which is a strong anti-inflammatory. My horse Marcus went through a period of eating mullein (<i>Verbascum thapsus</i>) while out on the trail. This too was very intriguing because at the time he had a slight cough and mullein is a highly regarded herb for coughs and congestion.

And, what about that catnip (<i>Nepeta cataria</i>)? My cats love catnip; they eat, roll aroundin it and sometimes take naps in their little catnip garden. It is reported that 70% of domestic cats enjoy catnip. There may be two reasons cats enjoy catnip. First, it may be due to an active ingredient called nepetalactone a terpenoid. “Nepetalactones mimic a natural courtship pheromone found in male-cat urine, which is thought to stimulate a pseudo-sexual reaction”.[1] This may explain the excitement in cats when they chew a small amount of the plant. The second reason is that nepetalactones is also very effective at repelling insects and maybe this is why cats like to roll in it. It is reported that eating a small amount of catnip is not harmful but in concentrated doses it has a hallucinogenic reaction; this may explain all that animated activity a cat may portray after eating too much catnip.


A few years ago I had an amazing opportunity to work with the orangutans, gorillas and black crested macaques at the Denver Zoo through their animal enrichment program. I worked with individual zookeepers and the primates they were in charge of and designed an essential oil program for each primate.

It was truly remarkable to work with the orangutans, gorillas and black crested macaques and to see them choose what essential oil they wanted and how they wanted it. We were watching Zoopharmacognosy in action.

Some of the conditions we addressed in the animals were distrust, pain, sinus problems, digestive upsets, anger, being easily aroused and fear. Some of the essential oils that we worked with were violet leaf, rose, jasmine, fennel, basil, sweet marjoram, neroli and ginger. Working with these oils and others did result in some significant behavioral changes. Each primate has been affected in their own unique way by the use of essential oils and their zookeeper’s consistent work with them and the essential oils. This work has definitely added to their quality of life in captivity.


Many indigenous cultures would study animals and see what plants they were eating and in return would discover medicinal plants for their own use. One example of this is osha root (Ligusticum porteri), a plant native to the western United States and Mexico. Another name for osha root is bear medicine. The story goes that Native Americans
would notice bears rolling around in this plant, eating the roots and applying a root mash to any injuries they may have had. They also noticed bears would seek this plant out when they awoke from their hibernation; the reasons for this may be for the plant’s respiratory cleansing properties and to clean out their digestive systems. Osha root is known for its powerful antiviral and antibacterial agent, used for bronchial infections and sore throats. (Because of osha roots’ popularity, it is now a plant at risk of disappearing.) There are many stories about indigenous cultures discovering their medicine by observing animals self-medicating themselves.

Today, wildlife biologists still observe animals in their natural habitat and find many new medicinal qualities in plants through these observations. In regards to Zoopharmacognosy:

“Observers have noticed that some species ingest non-foods, such as toxic plants, clay or charcoal, to ward off parasitic infestation or poisoning. Illustrating the medicinal knowledge of some species, apes have been observed selecting a particular part of a medicinal plant by taking off leaves, then breaking the stem to suck out the juice.[2] In an interview with Neil Campbell, Rodriguez describes the importance of biodiversity to medicine:

Some of the compounds we’ve identified by zoopharmacognosy kill parasitic worms, and some of these chemicals may be useful against tumors. There is no question that the templates for most drugs are in the natural world.[3]”

I teach the process of zoopharmacognosy in FrogWorks’ “Working with Animals and Essential Oils” courses and our in-depth Home Course. Our primary focus is to teach you how to work with the animal by letting them choose the plant or essential oil they need at that time. It is amazing to watch the healing process when you give the animal a chance to choose its remedy.

Click here for more information on our <a href=”index.php?main_page=index&cPath=4″>Classes</a> or <a   href=”index.php?main_page=index&cPath=4″>Home Course</a>

1. Engel, Cindy 2002. Wild Health, p. 159
2. Biser, Jennifer A. (1998). “Really Wild Remedies — Medicinal Plant Use by Animals.”
3. Biology (4th edition). N.A. Campbell, p.23 ‘An Interview with Eloy Rodriguez’ (Benjamin
Cummings NY, 1996)

Natural Fly Spray for Your Pets

Natural remedies for fleas, ticks and mosquitos are rapidly entering the market. How do you choose between the many products and home remedies available online and in stores? By doing your own research, with a critical mind, about that remedy you are considering bringing home and apply to your pet.

It is important to protect yourself, your home and your pet from these three tiny insects. These little pests can cause you and your pet a great deal of discomfort. For example, a flea bite can cause flea-allergy dermatitis (FAD), making your pet very itchy. In response to this itch your pet may scratch his skin raw, making it more vulnerable to bacterial infections, and possibly causing a hotspot. Ticks can spread the bacterium Rickettsia rickettsii which causes Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever. They can also spread the bacterium Borrelia burgdorferi , which causes Lyme Disease. The bite from a mosquito has the potential to give your pet the West Nile Virus.


Many people search for that all-natural remedy to use on their pet so they can can protect them from these insects and also avoid the prescription medication currently being offered. Over the years,my clients have called to ask if I make an all-natural fly spray for pets — one that will repel ticks, fleas and mosquitos. My answer has always been no. Creating an all-natural fly remedy is very challenging and I cannot ensure that people will use the product as directed. My closing comment to these inquiries has always been, “If I find something out there that I like, I will let you know.”

So far, I haven’t found a product I can fully endorse and some of the “natural” products I discovered on the market really raised my concern. One product promised to kill fleas on contact and listed its ingredients as “Dioctyl Sodium Sulfosuccinate…2.1%, Undecylenic Acid…0.5% Other Ingredients…97.4%.” What are those 97.4% other ingredients? How can we know if they are potentially damaging or toxic? Another product contained cinnamon oil. It did not say if it was cinnamon leaf or cinnamon bark oil. It is important to specify which of these it is, because cinnamon bark oil is a known dermal toxin and should never be used on the skin. Cinnamon leaf oil contains the chemical constituent eugenol, which can cause irritation to the mucus membranes; you would not want your pet to lick this remedy off his skin or coat.

While browsing our local health food store’s pet section, I noticed some all-natural flea collars. One of the ingredients listed was pennyroyal essential oil. I was shocked; one of its main chemical constituents in pennyroyal, pulegone, is a known abortifacent and pennyroyal essential oil is also an oral toxin. I would never put this on my pet for these two reasons.

Two summers ago we had an unusual number of mosquitos in Colorado. Our pets were miserable and we were too, so I decided it was time to attempt to make a remedy. After much research and thought, I decided to put the following essential oils together: geranium, lavender, lemongrass and lemon eucalyptus.

The reason for choosing these essential oils are:

Geranium (<i>Pelargonium graveolens</i>): The chemical constituent citronellol helps makes this essential oil an insecticide. It is also helps with skin issues such as skin congestion and dermatitis.

Lavender (<i>Lavendula angustifolia</i>): One of its chemical constituents is cineol, which may be why it is considered an insecticide. Lavender is also very soothing to the skin so if there were any skin flare-ups, this essential oil would help.

Lemongrass (<i>Cymbopogon citratus</i>): Lemongrass has a high concentration of the chemical constituent citral and contains the chemical constituent citronellol which makes this essential oil a very nice insecticide.

Lemon Eucalyptus (<i>Eucalyptus citriodora</i>): Its main insecticidal chemical components are citronellal (70-75%) and citronellol. There are a few species of eucalyptus oils that are considered toxic, and if taken orally the dose would have to be 3.5 mls or more. According to Robert Tisserand’s book Essential Oil Safety he considers Eucalyptus citriodora to be non-toxic.


When I am creating a product for my pets, I want to be very safe. The proportions of the essential oils are low and diluted in a spray bottle containing eight ounces of water. If a pet starts to show any adverse reaction to the ingredients, I stop using the product immediately. Some pets dislike the smell of these essential oils and that is a valid indication to stop using them.

After receiving more phone calls from clients about an all-natural pet fly spray, I decided to make two products from the oils listed above. These product are now called Oscar’s Critter Repellant, after our dog Oscar and Ruby’s Equine Fly Spray, after our horse Ruby. These product are effective, but its effects are not long-lasting and you will need to re-apply it throughout the day. <b>These products are not for cats – do not use these products or these essential oils on your cats.</b>

With so many products and home remedies to choose from, you need to read the ingredients carefully, and research the ingredients before applying to your pet, whether it is an all-natural product or a chemical-based product from a pharmaceutical company. Unfortunately, pet products are not consistently regulated, so we cannot assume that all remedies on the market are safe for our pets.

While all-natural remedies can be helpful, you may wish to take some other preventive measures to combat these pests. Have a flea and tick comb on hand for your dog or cat and use it after a walk or after he has been playing outside. Keep all the pet beds and your bedding clean, and keep your floors and carpeting clean during the infestation season. You may want to use fly sheets on your horses.

Our pets are very sensitive beings, so be safe and think about what remedies you choose!